Rice is one of the major crops that feed the world (accounting for 19% of global food calories, UN FAOSTAT). Yet rice is one of the major crops to be accepted and used to feed the world's population. The primary core research question to be explored is what are the barriers to the acceptance and use of genetically modified rice? This study will examine barriers to acceptance and use of GM rice at the global level and at the country level. Descriptive and analytical policy analysis of government treatment of GM rice will be conducted on the major producing/consuming and major exporting/importing countries. In-depth country studies will be conducted in three food deficit, rice importing countries representing three different continents including Asia (Bangladesh), Africa (Tanzania), and Latin America (Colombia). The purpose of this component of the research is to go beyond the policy analysis and identify and analyze attitudinal barriers held by rice producers and consumers. Pre- and post-surveys of producers and consumers will be conducted to assess the impact of providing science-based information about the net benefits of GM rice. A final component of the study will be a policy assessment of the role and impact of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the acceptance and use of genetically modified rice.